This work is based at Georgia Institute of Technology. There are two main SEI activities at SENIC: 1 nanoinformatics, which involves the development of nanotechnology publication and patent databases for use in informing and guiding SENIC, and 2 design and exercise development with attention to social and ethical activities important to nanotechnology that parallels the Innovation Corps I-Corps process. These datasets have been obtained using a search strategy described in an article published in Scientometrics, We use this information to inform SENIC participants about trends in nanotechnology so that they can stay abreast of future scientific and technological needs.
We also use this information to help broaden participation in SENIC by targeting potential new users in the region. Georgia Tech is one of the largest training nodes for the I-Corps program. The Research Ethics Program was founded in to promote research integrity and to provide training in responsible conduct of research for the UC San Diego campus.
The Program provided a foundation for research on research integrity, resources for teachers of research ethics Resources for Research Ethics Education , and public engagement around the ethical challenges of new developments in science and technology Center for Ethics in Science and Technology. Although a focus on ethics in nanotechnology is new to UC San Diego, plans are underway to add this topic to the research ethics resources website, and at least one program is now being scheduled through the Ethics Center.
David Berube, Ph. Create citation alert. Buy this article in print. Journal RSS feed. Sign up for new issue notifications. This study is a response to the need to examine the educational perspective of the Nanoscale Science and Engineering field NSE in all grades of education.
Specifically, we address to educate primary teachers about essential concepts, applications and phenomena of the NSE discipline. In order to do so, we first seek to establish, the salient concepts, principles and phenomena that should be introduced to primary teachers, as a result of the transformation of the content, to content appropriate for the target population. In addition, to address the challenges of making the formatted content structure accessible to primary teachers, a variety of experimental activities were designed, which we present in detail.
In addition, relevance of nano-education to the needs of employers has been investigated, with particular focus on large industrial companies and small and medium enterprises SMEs. Results of both types of studies will be summarised below.
The need for staff trained in nanotechnology among other employers has not been examined to date. In Europe, the European Commission has been integrating nanotechnology education in its policies since These activities included:. Furthermore, many European universities were creating nanotechnology courses and awarding masters degrees .
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Several authors have published inventories of nanotechnology education in Europe over the years, but none of these claims to be comprehensive. The data do give an indication of the interest in nanotechnology at European universities [16, 17].
In —, Nanoforum  identified 28 undergraduate programmes, 78 MSc courses, 19 PhD programmes, and 25 short courses in nanotechnology. He also includes nano-education in other countries. Kiparissides et al. These data indicate that a specialisation in nanotechnology at postgraduate level after a monodisciplinary undergraduate education is more common than a specialised nano-education from the undergraduate level.
The European Commission proposed to continue developing infrastructures and the education system, consistent with the multidisciplinary character of nanotechnology . For individual researchers, individual non-researchers, and research organisations this was the first priority.
For industry it was the third priority . The announced SNAP appears to have dropped from the policy agenda, but current European Commission activities in nanotechnology are still in line with the first action plan. The abovementioned EIT plays a key role in this. The European Commission established it in , with the mission to increase European sustainable growth and competitiveness by reinforcing the innovation capacity of the EU.
This mission is implemented by educating the next generation innovators in Knowledge and Innovation Communities KICs in selected areas. These KICs bring together key stakeholders in education, research, and innovation the Knowledge Triangle. The strategy for — foresees the launch of six more KICs: innovation for healthy living and active ageing, Food4Future — sustainable supply chain from resources to consumer, raw materials — sustainable exploration, extraction, processing and recycling, first wave, , urban mobility, added-value manufacturing, smart secure societies second wave, .
On the positive side, HORIZON is expected to offer the potential to share implementation tasks for future education programmes and the EIT is in a good position to integrate education, research, and innovation. On the negative side, knowledge triangle integration is hampered because it is not completely covered by HORIZON , making cooperation with other European Commission programmes necessary. The structural funds offer funding for research and innovation, and EIT only covers parts of education policies and excludes Intellectual Property Rights IPR policy .
On a more fundamental level, Maassen and Stensaker  criticised the European policies supporting the knowledge triangle for being incoherent.
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The EU reform agendas for education the Bologna declaration, , aiming at standardisation of mass higher education throughout the EU , research Lisbon Strategy, , fostering concentration on excellent universities, groups, and researchers , and innovation open innovation, stimulating networks, research for private sector innovation, and economic growth in Europe have different underlying rationales. This poses new challenges for universities trying to coherently adapt to these three knowledge areas .
It remains to be seen how such less targeted policy will impact the emergence of nanotechnology education curricula in Europe in the coming years. On the demand side, several studies have mainly surveyed academic and industrial European employers about their needs for personnel with nanotechnology education and for nanotechnology training for their staff [27—35]. The respondents to these questionnaires were typically a mix of government, academic, and large and small company representatives.
This strong bias in available studies on the need for nanotechnology education makes it difficult for education institutes offering nanotechnology education to address the needs of non-industrial and non-academic employers.
enter Invernizzi  indicates that such other employers may have specific needs for staff with nanotechnology education: a trade union representative complained that they had difficulties negotiating about nanotechnology regulation because the discussion was limited to technical aspects, and that they had difficulties hiring technical experts . Given the strong focus on industrial innovation, it is not surprising that the needs for education and training of staff in non-industrial and non-academic organisations have not been investigated to date. Dialogue and communication includes civil society organisations, dialogue and communication consultants, media, political bodies, and public institutes.
Table 1 displays the types of organisations surveyed. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the broad diversity of possible interest in nanotechnology education among these non-traditional employers. Therefore, no attempt has been made to collect data on the size of the labour market for particular non-industrial skills in nanotechnology. What types of other employers have been active in nanotechnology in the past 5 years and can be expected to continue in the near to mid-term future?
What types of nanotechnology-related activities are undertaken by these employers and their employees with nano-related tasks? Which nanotechnology-related knowledge and skills would be required for each of the categories? Can gaps be identified in pre-existing education and training? The methodology used to investigate these questions is a combination of desk research, snowballing, and semi-structured interviews. These are commonly used qualitative research methods in social sciences.
The methodology is, for example, described in . This analysis resulted in a selection of over organisations that had apparently at least been involved in discussions on nanotechnology since and were planning to continue their engagement in the coming years.
A total of 37 organisations were approached by e-mail requesting a telephone interview with a responsible manager and a person actually working on nanotechnology. In some organisations this was the same person. Some contact individuals suggested to forward the interview request to another organisation or individual in the same organisation.