Sometimes warts may cause itching, redness, or discomfort, especially when they occur around the anus. Although they are usually without other physical symptoms, an outbreak of genital warts may cause psychological distress, such as anxiety , in some people.
HPV is most commonly transmitted through penetrative sex. While HPV can also be transmitted via non-penetrative sexual activity, it is less transmissible than via penetrative sex. There is conflicting evidence about the effect of condoms on transmission of low-risk HPV. Some studies have suggested that they are effective at reducing transmission.
The effect of condoms on HPV transmission may also be gender-dependent; there is some evidence that condoms are more effective at preventing infection of males than of females. The types of HPV that cause warts are highly transmissible. Roughly three out of four unaffected partners of patients with warts develop them within eight months.
In individuals with a history of previous HPV infection, the appearance of new warts may be either from a new exposure to HPV, or from a recurrence of the previous infection. As many as one-third of people with warts will experience a recurrence.
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Anal or genital warts may be transmitted during birth. The presence of wart-like lesions on the genitals of young children has been suggested as an indicator of sexual abuse. However, genital warts can sometimes result from autoinoculation by warts elsewhere on the body, such as from the hands. Genital warts in children are less likely to be caused by HPV subtypes 6 and 11 than adults, and more likely to be caused by HPV types that cause warts elsewhere on the body "cutaneous types".
Surveys of pediatricians who are child abuse specialists suggest that in children younger than 4 years old, there is no consensus on whether the appearance of new anal or genital warts, by itself, can be considered an indicator of sexual abuse. The diagnosis of genital warts is most often made visually, but may require confirmation by biopsy in some cases. Some practitioners use an acetic acid solution to identify smaller warts "subclinical lesions" , but this practice is controversial.
Types 6 and 11 cause genital warts, while 16 and 18 cause cervical cancer. The vaccine is preventive, not therapeutic, and must be given before exposure to the virus type to be effective, ideally before the beginning of sexual activity. The vaccine is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in both males and females as early as 9 years of age. There is no cure for HPV.
Existing treatments are focused on the removal of visible warts, but these may also regress on their own without any therapy. A healthcare practitioner may offer one of several ways to treat warts, depending on their number, sizes, locations, or other factors. All treatments can potentially cause depigmentation, itching, pain, or scarring. Treatments can be classified as either physically ablative , or topical agents. Physically ablative therapies are considered more effective at initial wart removal, but like all therapies have significant recurrence rates.
Many therapies, including folk remedies, have been suggested for treating genital warts, some of which have little evidence to suggest they are effective or safe. Physically ablative methods are more likely to be effective on keratinized warts. They are also most appropriate for patients with fewer numbers of relatively smaller warts. Podophyllin, podofilox and isotretinoin should not be used during pregnancy , as they could cause birth defects in the fetus.
Warts can also spontaneously regress with or without treatment. Traditional theories postulated that the virus remained in the body for a lifetime. However, studies using sensitive DNA techniques have shown that through immunological response the virus can either be cleared or suppressed to levels below what polymerase chain reaction PCR tests can measure. A condyloma acuminatum is a single genital wart, and condylomata acuminata are multiple genital warts.
Although similarly named, it is not the same as condyloma latum , which is a complication of secondary syphilis. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sexually transmitted infection caused by certain types of human papillomaviruses.
See also: HPV vaccine. Elsevier Health Sciences. American Family Physician. Retrieved 2 January Retrieved 16 November Papillomavirus infections in human pathology. Chichester [u. Retrieved The Lancet Infectious Diseases. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. This publication is provided for education and information purposes only.
It is not a substitute for professional medical care. Information about a therapy, service, product or treatment does not imply endorsement and is not intended to replace advice from your healthcare professional. Readers should note that over time currency and completeness of the information may change. All users should seek advice from a qualified healthcare professional for a diagnosis and answers to their medical questions. Search this site Search all sites Search. Go to whole of WA Government Search.
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